About Connecting to Congress
Connecting to Congress (C2C) is IDEA’s flagship research initiative, which aims to create authentic, actionable engagement between Members of Congress and the full range of their constituents via online Deliberative Town Halls. It is the follow-up to the Congress 3.0 project, a groundbreaking multiyear experiment that proved deliberative engagement connects constituents and lawmakers in productive and mutually rewarding ways. In this current age of political turmoil, C2C aims to increase the capacity of Congress to engage with their constituents in a productive and deliberative manner while analyzing how these deliberations affect both constituent opinion as well as Member of Congress’ decision making.
How is this Done?
Connecting to Congress accomplishes this task through utilizing the “Deliberative Town Hall” (DTH) model, co-created by IDEA Director Dr. Michael Neblo. This model allows for an engagement of a representative cross-section of a congressional district to participate in an independent, non-partisan town hall on a single issue with their congressional representative. While this model could be used for an area of any size, such as a city, state, or nation, C2C only focuses on the congressional district level as this is most pertinent to its research.
Beyond administering these Deliberative Town Halls, Connecting to Congress conducts pre- and post-surveys to participants. These surveys effectively track the effects that these individual DTHs had on their constituent participants, such as the change in their trust and approval of their representative, as well as in their opinion on the specific policies discussed. Peer-reviewed research has shown that these programs produce significant gains in constituent approval, trust, and likelihood to vote for the Member of Congress. Understanding the time and resource constraints congressional offices are under, IDEA organizes these online events, handles all technology and produces this analysis with minimal investment of staff time and at no cost to offices.
Common Ground for Action Online Forums
Connecting to Congress doesn’t only conduct Deliberative Town Halls – it also organizes Common Ground for Action (CGA) deliberative online forums. CGA is a simple, yet sophisticated, online platform that allows citizens to deliberate together about various policies regarding political issues, weigh tradeoffs, and see where they have common ground. Throughout these 90-minute small-group deliberations, participants are able to visually see how their original perspectives shift relative to others, allowing them a powerful tool to see where they do (and don’t) align with other group members. CGA forums are a valuable experience not only because they provide a wealth of data on what policies constituents do and do not support, but why they support them as well.
Congress 3.0 was a groundbreaking, multi-year experiment involving rigorous scientific methodology which proved that deliberative engagement connects constituents and lawmakers in authentic, productive, and mutually rewarding ways. The work C2C does is built on these findings. Currently, C2C is investigating which tools are most useful in increasing the engagement capacity of congressional offices – how many constituents they can meaningfully interact with – as well as in how participating in these deliberative events can dually foster constituents’ trust and also be helpful in Members’ decision making.
Traditional town halls are one of the most typical ways Members of Congress communicate with constituents. However, conventional town halls have become less effective and more risky in recent years— as polarization has increased, they have tended to attract only the most partisn constituents, and/or “the usual suspects,” who take every opportunity to engage with their Member. They generally don’t attract the large swath of citizens who aren’t engaged, and thus offer limited gains for Members really trying to understand their constituency’s concerns and priorities. Additionally, town halls have recently become seen as potential weapons, opportunities to force a stumble by the Member and drive negative media coverage.
Even at their best, the format of traditional town halls often lead to two other problems: over-broadness that doesn’t allow the conversation to get beyond toplines and talking points, and the perception that the conversation is being stage-managed by staff to avoid tough questions for the Member. Both these problems lead to a ‘defensive’ posture among participants, which means that even if the events go well, they often don’t result in any new information to Members or any change in opinion among constituents.
“Deliberative” town halls are designed to overcome these limitations and create town halls that facilitate constructive, two-way communication. The key elements of a deliberative town hall are:
- Representativeness: Specially recruiting a representative cross-section of constituents to participate, and holding the event online to make it as accessible as possible.
- Focus: Limiting the town hall to a single issue facilitates more substantive conversation that gets beyond talking points.
- Information: Providing non-partisan background information on the issue in advance allows constituents to form more informed opinions.
- Independence: Having a neutral third-party moderate the town hall emphasizes to constituents that this is not an informercial, leading to more authentic participation and the opportunity to create trust and persuasion.
- Candid, real-time participation by Member: Seeing a Member of Congress make themselves available for questioning in a transparent environment engages constituents in ways that no other communication can.
These are the simple, but crucial elements of a “deliberative town hall.” However, though simple, they can be very difficult for a congressional office to implement on their own, which is why the Connecting to Congress exists— to provide the capacity for this kind of town hall, and the additional research and analysis documenting its impact.
In 2006, thirteen sitting members of Congress – frustrated and dissatisfied with status quo politics and limited opportunities for constituent engagement – agreed to work with Dr. Neblo and several other political scientists on a set of unprecedented field experiments.
The research team developed a way of combining the then-emerging tele-townhall technology with “deliberative” principles to create informed, productive conversations and trust between the Members and their constituents. The team recruited a representative sample of constituents from each district or state and then randomly assigned some constituents to receive an invitation to participate in a “deliberative online townhall.” Their responses could then be compared against those who only took surveys.
The results were startling. The differences between the control group and those who
- The online deliberative sessions attracted every kind of citizen—the citizens who voluntarily participated in these deliberative were more representative of the country than the electorate.
- Deliberative events offer lawmakers a chance to reach beyond “the usual suspects”—in fact, they particularly attracted citizens who tend not to follow politics or who have become disenchanted with the system. Furthermore, after participating, these citizens became more likely to vote and take part in political discussions.
- The design of the deliberative events—with participants reviewing non-partisan back materials and engaging in deliberation guided by impartial facilitators—resulted in high-quality, informed conversations, not talking points and simplistic arguments.
- Participating in these deliberative sessions significantly increased citizens’ trust in government.
- Participants surveyed four months after the deliberative event were 10% more likely to vote for the representative that engaged with them in this way.
In addition to publishing individual findings in several prestigious peer-reviewed journals, Dr. Neblo and the other members of the research team published a comprehensive summary of these experiment Politics With the People: Building a Directly Representative Democracy, in 2018. Publication of the book led to the relaunch of the research as Connecting to Congress, which has held over a dozen additional deliberative engagement experiments in collaboration with Members of Congress.